Object representation in music
- illustrated by a psychoanalytical study of the origins of Béla Bartók's First Violin Concerto and Two Portraits

Csaba Horgász


The objective of this paper is to illustrate by means of psychoanalysis some aspects of the creative process of composing music. In my opinion, the internalized object relations - which are represented in the personality in the form of unconscious fantasies - play a decisive role in the formulation of artistic concept of the world (cf. Horgász 1993).
     I will illustrate this hypothesis by analyzing the psychological motives underlying Bartók's early compositions, in first Violin Concerto (op. posthum.) and Two Portraits (op. 5). I intend to show a few of Bartók's characteristic object relation attitudes (cf. Horgász 1995) and to illustrate their musical representation.
        Hitherto little known documents, the collection of Bartók's letters to violinist Stefi Geyer between 1907-1908 and published by the Swiss conductor Paul Sacher1 in Basel in 1979, help reveal Bartók's typical object relation attitude. The collection contains twenty letters, six postcards, and diary-like notes. In none of his later writings do we find such sincere and profound confessions as in these passionate communications written at age twenty-seven. This was the only brief period in the composer's life when he allowed, in his music as well as his letters, an insight into his hermetically sealed internal world.
        The close relationship between Bartók and Stefi Geyer lasted only a little more than seven months. In the beginning, their meetings took the form of playing music together, but later, due to Stefi Geyer's tours abroad and Bartók's folk-song collecting trips,2 their relationship became confined to correspondence. These documents enable us to follow closely the development of the relationship.
        Bartók soon fell in love with the girl who returned his feelings initially, but soon they discovered that they disagreed on fundamental issues. For instance, the question of marriage was such a sensitive issue. Bartók's unusual views about marriage may well have disquieted her love for him: "As regards tradition, it's but holy gospel for average people. And the Stefi Geyers are born to eschew its yoke... I think that everyone, man and woman, if it is in one's power, must fight against the bonds of tradition. This fight is actually but a striving for autonomy, to be independent of everyone or of everything, as well as to be in control of ourselves..." (July 27, 1907, my italics - Cs.H.)
        Bartók was wary of dependence in other respects also. About friendship, he wrote: "In my mind I have already come to the conclusion that I will not have any male friends, because I cannot. Only an autonomous person would, which fact virtually precludes harmony in outlook." (August 20, 1907)
        It seems, he was afraid that acceptance of a partner's views would be tantamount to surrendering his own autonomy, thus a danger to his own independence.
        His letters written at the age of eighteen or nineteen to his mother reveal that his distrust and anxieties concerning a dependent position in a relationship were originally directed at his primary object relation, his mother: "... it is not good and it is unnecessary for a mother to be completely enslaved to her child. Freedom!" (Bartók, Jr. 1981a, 130)
        Márta Ziegler, Bartók's first wife, recalled (Bónis 1992), that his mother was a highly dependent individual3 who devoted her entire life to her son. Bartók's letters as a young man to his mother show, however, that for him this devotion was more of a burden than a source of joy. He wrote, for instance: "Please, don't be so concerned with me, because it's very unhealthy if someone pays too much attention to another, whoever that may be..." (Bartók, Jr. 1981a, 38)
        Bartók not only wanted to avoid situations demanding compliance and involving dependence, it was also important to him to have others close to him accept his views, in other words, to bring them under his control. He admits to this with astonishing openness in the following letter to Geyer: "It is wholly impossible to improve people, or, more appropriately, to train them to behave in ways other than what their nature predestined them for. So much agony sprang from my endeavor to do just that. I would have liked many things to be very different in those close to me. Clearly, this desire was motivated by disguised selfishness. It makes communication so much more agreeable if I can shape a person to my liking... This is all over now, and my independence in this respect is secured for ever." (July 27, 1907)
        This desire to transform others did not vanish, regardless of what Bartók believed. His letters to Geyer, in the beginning anyway, show that he did his best to make her accept his views. He even used projective identification, the method of applying emotional pressure to accomplish this.
        The question of religion was a cardinal issue of conflict between them. Bartók was unable to forgive Geyer her belief in Catholic doctrine and even less the fact that the girl he was in love with was committed to somebody with which he could not compete: "...if I ever crossed myself, it would signify 'In the name of Nature, Art and Science...' Isn't that enough?! Must you have the promised 'hereafter' as well? That's something I can't understand." (September 6, 1907, cf. Bartók 1971, 82)
        It's very likely that the real issue in their relationship concerned not so much the substance of marriage and religion, but the object relation pattern that Bartók wanted to create in the course of and through their argument. Bartók tried to escape from his dependent relation to her (because his in love) by assuming a position of dominance in a way that he be in an asymmetrical controlling relation to her: "Will you allow me to supply you with reading matter from time to time?... You needn't be afraid that reading will blight your youth; even if it were to shorten it, you would be amply compensated by all the pleasure you would get from it", he wrote in his above cited letter (September 6, 1907, cf. Bartók 1971, 83).
        Geyer, however, began to assume a defensive position, rejecting Bartók's dominating attitude, and became alienated from her admirer. Her resistance and alienation brought on a change in Bartók's self-confident attitude and their relationship came to a turning point. As Bónis writes: "Instead of winning her, Bartók's arguments intimidated the traditionally reared girl; her rejection of them - and the total rejection of the man - was inevitable and immediate. From that time on a peculiar alternation between hope and despair characterized Bartók's letters. They became increasingly personal and passionate - focussing increasingly on the violin concerto he was working on." (Bónis 1992, 36.)
        Bartók's next letter is an important document on artistic creativity and, therefore, worth closer examination.
        As we have seen, Bartók was compelled to face the fact that his efforts to change and to control Geyer were ineffective: "Why are you such a very weak person, and why are you afraid of reading and learning?! This is what drives me to despair... Would you still refuse to accept books from me even if I only gave you books in which there is merely a total lack of reference to god - or at least only pious reference?!" (September 11, 1907, cf. Bartók 1971, 86.)
        In the end, he was totally overcome by the feeling of hopelessness and despair and in this state of despondency he even considered suicide.4 However, he was quick to repress the embarrassing realization of his failure: "I would never attempt to talk you out of your faith, distressed though I am by your present state of mind. Move the first moment of crisis, you would relapse, I am sure--- Yes, let us drop the subject; we may discuss it again - at some later date, maybe, but not now." (Ibid., my italics - Cs.H.)
        Repression, however, was only partial; Bartók's defeat on this subject, in the religious dispute, left its mark on his mood. It dawned on him that he may lose the girl, if he had not lost her already: "After reading your letter, I sat down to the piano - I have a sad misgiving that I shall never find any consolation in life save in music. And yet---" (Ibid., 87.)

Figure 1

"The unfinished sentence is followed by nine bars of music: a sort of funeral march, the prototype of the piano piece - the 13th Bagatelle - called Elle est morte [she is dead]. Above the fourth chord in C sharp minor Bartók wrote: 'This is your Leitmotiv'", wrote Bónis (1992, 36).
        These few lines reveal the musical creative process as it evolves through the inner psychic dynamics of the personality. We are witness to the phenomenon, described by a number of psychoanalyst authors, when object loss activates the creative process.
        Let us review the events in psychoanalytical terms. First and foremost, we are witness to an object relation conflict: By applying the method of projective identification, Bartók tried to establish a special, controlling, narcissistic object relation pattern with Geyer, which she resisted. Bartók's frustration by the rejection gave rise to aggressive feelings towards her. This was first manifested in his attack on her religious convictions, then he turned against himself as his suicidal fantasies reveal.
        When the ideal external object became unattainable, Bartók - in Freud's terminology - was forced to withdraw his libido and sublimate it in music: "I have a sad misgiving that I shall never find any consolation in life save in music," he wrote, reinforcing Freud's theory that a work of art is "but" a fantasized wish fulfillment.5
        The musical sentence in the letter tells us what wish was being fulfilled: "this is your Leitmotiv," he wrote above one of the motives which points to her presence in his music (phantasy). The desired object relation, which became impossible in real life, became realized in fantasy and thereby in the creative act and its final product, music.
        László Böhm's Dictionary of Music defines leitmotif (Leitmotiv; leading motive) "as a musical motive used to denote a dramatic situation or a person constantly recurring in the composition as a characteristic feature" (Böhm 1990, 149). Psychologically speaking, Bartók's leitmotif is the musical representation of an internal object, the ideal of Stefi Geyer.
        The leitmotif in the letter corresponds with the main theme of the 1st movement of the Violin Concerto he finished six months later.6 (In this context, we may also interpret the writing of the Violin Concerto as a continuation of mourning work.) Bartók used this 1st movement, as I will show below, in his composition, Two Portraits, and called it the Ideal Portrait. In other words, the leitmotif in the letter is but a musical visiting card presenting the ideal Stefi Geyer. The attribute, Ideal, suggests that the portrayal of Stefi Geyer as an accepting, acquiescent person who returns his affections, who is free of the negative features separating them. This idealization and, thus, wish-fulfilment is made possible by discarding the negative aspects.
        However, in the letter, the leitmotif is embedded in a kind of funeral march which qualifies his relation to the ideal object as depressive. The creative process could not ease the negative affects. These are expressed in the accompaniment. On the whole, the musical idea noted in the letter depicts Bartók's ambivalence toward the object: the leitmotif represents the idealized object, the accompaniment the controversial depressive affects which are directed at her and are related to object loss and the death of the internal object. The psychological meaning of the composition may by summarized as follows: Bartók carried the picture of a desired, loved object in his internal world, which, due to the aggression arising from ambivalence, became an damaged, dead object.

This, however, did not mean the end of the relationship by far. The conflict did not weaken Bartók's attraction; his belief in the future of the relationship rekindled time and again. The geographical distance that their travels involved contributed to the maintenance of this idealization (which in this case belongs to the sphere of manic defense), though Bartók did sense its falseness. His internal world came to life again and he wrote the following in his next letter in which he used three variants of the Stefi Geyer leitmotif to address her: "Your Leitmotivs flutter around me, I live with and in them all day long as if I were dreaming under narcosis. And it is as it should be; this is the kind of opiate I need for my work, even if it is nerve-racking, poisonous, and dangerous." (September 20, 1907)
        Obviously, for Bartók the leitmotifs were internal objects representations; and the creative process itself was a composition of object relations of his fantasy. The quotation is a fine illustration of the way Bartók built an internal object world in his intrapsychic world, in his music, which kept him spellbound.
        These fluttering leitmotifs gave birth to the 1st Violin Concerto, the plans for which engaged Bartók's attention almost from the moment he met Geyer. The concerto comprises two antipodal movements. As already mentioned, the 1st movement is a portrait of the ideal Stefi Geyer. In his letter of November 26, 1907, Bartók wrote as follows:

Figure 2

"this idealized musical picture contains every thought and feeling I had at the time. I never wrote spontaneous music such as this..." (November 26, 1907)
        In another letter to Geyer, Bartók introduces the main motive of the 2nd movement as follows: "Wasn't that 14-year-old elfish little girl, whom I met in Jászberény, Stefi Geyer?!! Oh dear! Hurry, please, and readjust your photograph or, else, depictions like this will appear throughout the composition!" (August 20, 1907)

Figure 3
(Bartók's handwriting)

 I have not seen the photograph that evoked Bartók's disapproval, but he added a caption in English to the score, "G. St. when she is smoking a pipe." She was fourteen when Bartók first met her. At the time of the dramatic turn in their relationship, she was nineteen; it may well be that the photograph showed her as an adult perhaps sporting a pipe, which disrupted the ideal picture Bartók had of her.
        Thus, the ideal 1st movement of the Violin Concerto is supplemented with an ironic, elfish 2nd movement. Its tempo designation is allegro giocoso, that is, playful, comic, rapid. In this 2nd movement, the ideal Stefi Geyer becomes the victim of a fantasy game, of a slight distortion, revealing Bartók's ambivalent feelings concerning her. The caption above the third theme of the movement also reflects this ambivalence: thickly, growling (cf. Kroó 1974).
        The main theme itself was the result of the transformation - inversion and break through - of the leitmotif (Bónis 1992, 40):

Figure 4

Under the influence of his ambivalent emotions, the composer performed a transformation, a cognitive operation on the internal object represented in the potential space (Winnicott 1971) of music.

As the conflict between Bartók and Geyer sharpened - to which, according to the letters, her ambivalent, beguiling behavior also contributed - Bartók's feelings toward her became increasingly immoderate. This can be easily traced in the change in Bartók's creative concept. At first, he planned the Violin Concerto to consist of three movements and described his dramaturgic plan as follows: "Already I have drawn a musical picture of the idealized St. G. - it's heavenly, intimate; I also have another of the fiery St. G. - it's humorous, clever, amusing. Now, I should compose a picture of the indifferent, cool, silent St. G. But this would be hateful music." (November 29, 1907)
        The unequivocal polarization of his feelings for Geyer is clear in the letter dated ten days later: "You are a dear, a good, a fairy-like, an enchanting girl! who has only to draw a few lines to chase the dark, grimly swirling clouds from the sky and make the bright sun shine on me. - You are a taciturn, a bad, a cruel, a miserly girl! to begrudge me your powers of enchantment!" (December 8, 1907)
        A few lines down he wrote the same in terms of music: "One cannot always be a 6/8 D  F sharp A C sharp - D [leitmotif], sometimes

Figure 5

one must also be." (Ibid.)
    In the end, almost two weeks later, he decided to use the two movement form: "One day this week the seemingly indisputable necessity suddenly occurred to me, as if it were inspired, that your composition can have but 2 movements. Two contrasting portraits: that's all. I can only wonder now that I did not see the truth of this before." (December 21, 1907)
        Although the two movements of the Violin Concerto impersonate two different aspects of Geyer (the ideal and the elfish), thereby expressing the dual form design so characteristic of Bartók, the 2nd movement is merely a mild poke at the ideal Stefi Geyer, which failed to adequately convey Bartók's growing irritation and anger. His efforts to ward off her negative aspects and those of the relationship were in vain, proving more resilient. For this reason he was thinking of writing a third movement which would have been hateful music.
        This hateful music did not have to wait long. In May 1908, Bartók finished the Fourteen Bagatelles (op. 6) for pianoforte. The last of these is a fast waltz based on the Stefi Geyer leitmotif and is called Ma mie qui danse (My love dances) (cf. Kroó 1974). According to Geyer's comment, the piano piece is a reaction to our separation (cited by Tallián 1981, 79). Subsequently, Bartók orchestrated this originally pianoforte piece and fitted it into the first movement of the Violin Concerto, leaving out the original second movement. Thus was the Two Portraits for Orchestra (op. 5) composed (around 1914). Bartók called the first movement of the new composition One Ideal and the second One Grotesque. According to György Kroó, "We do not know whether the piano piece composed as the fourteenth of the Bagatelles, which was the basis of the 'Grotesque' portrait, was in fact originally conceived as the third movement for the Violin Concerto. Was this the 'hateful' music that Bartók was not capable of composing in February 1908? He produced it later that same spring and it is possible that this too was a confession of love, as the inscription of the sketch '...con amore' would seem to indicate" (Kroó 1974, 41).
        In other words, after the breakup Bartók replaced the second, amusing, movement of the Violin Concerto with hateful music. This music conveyed more faithfully the intense, destructive anger he felt toward Geyer. With the end of the relationship his repressed emotions, expressed as playful irony in the 2nd movement, were released without restraint in the Grotesque Portrait.
        In the unified composition of the Two Portraits the split in emotions form an integral whole and the splitting becomes ambivalence.7
        Let us compare the main themes of the Two Portrait's Ideal and Grotesque movements and note their sameness and variances:

Figure 6

(By Ernõ Lendvai 1971, 66.)

The main theme of both movements is constructed from the same musical material, namely, Geyer's leitmotif. As we have shown, the leitmotif is the musical representation of an internal object. In this case, we have two different expressions, or aspects, of the leitmotif, or the internal object.
        Preservation of the schema, the perceptual Gestalt of the melodic passage ensures the identicalness of the two thematic schemes. This stable cognitive structure, musical skeleton (the rules of which may be studied by cognitive psychology and musical theory jointly) carry or contain representation of the internal object. Or, to put it simply: in the potential space (Winnicott 1971) of music, the internal object representation takes place in the cognitive structure.8
        What are the means by way of which musical representation of the different emotions concerning the object, the different aspects of the object, that is, the affective object relation is realized? The answer to this question lies in the musicological elucidation of the principles of variation formation. Here, I would like to only point out a few of the differences in the principles of composition in the musical examples that Bartók used to convey his conflicting feelings toward Geyer.
        The Ideal movement is a slow, intent composition in piano, with its meaning interpreted by an intimate violin solo using a strict fugue structure. The Grotesque movement, on the other hand, is a fast waltz, in which emotions find release in a rapid succession of thunderous fortissimo bursts of various effects; the intense emotions sweep away the sound of the solo instrument by activating the entire orchestra (cf. Lendvai 1971). Ernõ Lendvai summarizes the plot of the two movements as follows:
        "I would compare the 1st piece to a transfigured and deep sleep; but in the case of the exposition, the dream expresses a yearning, unquenchable thirst, the reprise [return], however, is the dream fulfilled... The ethereal Ideal theme is made into a trivial and showy waltz, turning the sensitive features of the 1st movement into a frantic spin. The basis of the dramatic concept [of the 2nd movement] is that the Gotesque theme must die--with the reprise... The reprise brings back the main theme not as a melody, but in the form of inarticulate rattles, naturalistic imitation of sounds only to have them burst like petards a few bars later...: the expanding funnel motive explodes in the leading motive [leitmotif] D-F sharp-A-C sharp... The cadences harmonically destroy the leading motive, D-F sharp-A-C sharp..." (Lendvai 1971, 62-74).
        In the Grotesque Portrait, Bartók took revenge on the frustrating bad object who deserted him by the musical ridiculing, bursting, and, eventually, the harmonic destruction of the leitmotif representing the object.
        By way of comparison, let us quote from one of his last letters to Geyer, in which, giving vent to his agitation, he thought of destroying the Violin Concerto which for him represented her and their relationship: "I finished the score of the violin concerto on the 5th of February, the very day you were writing my death sentence...  I locked it in my desk, I don't know whether to destroy it or to keep it locked away until it is found after I die and the whole pile of papers, my declaration of love, your concerto, my best work are thrown out." (February 8, 1908)
        The unbridled release of destructive impulses toward the object resulted in the death of the internal object. Bartók was greatly worn out by the breakup and, as a result of his serious sense of loss, he again became obsessed with thoughts of self-destruction: "I've reached the ultimate limit beyond which I cannot ask for anyone's love, cannot ask anyone to share her life with me. I feel and I'm also convinced that nothing but long years of solitude await me. I must give up completely this internal happiness... Perhaps I may have the welcome opportunity to catch pneumonia or some such thing, so that I may depart without attracting attention, as I have nothing to expect." (February 8, 1908)
        It was in this mood Bartók composed the 13th Bagatelle mentioned above when I introduced the first occurrence of the depressive spirited leitmotif, called Elle est morte... (she died). This piece is also based on the Stefi Geyer leitmotif and Bartók wrote above the last occurrence of the motive in Hungarian: meghalt... (she died).

Figure 7

This variation of the leitmotif is a representation of the dead internal object for whom Bartók erected a monument on a score.
        The most important composition Bartók wrote immediately after the breakup is his first truly mature and accomplished masterpiece, the String Quartet No. I. It is closely related, spiritually and thematically, to the Violin Concerto; in the first movement, Bartók grieves, as it were, for his destroyed, dead internal object. Kroó wrote the following in praise of the composition:
        "That dreamy tone of happiness, that havening, ethereal quality which permeated the 'Ideal' portrait, gave way, as the dream itself faded from Bartók's mind, to grievous lamenting and deep, hopeless sadness in the Lento movement of the String Quartet No. 1. The playful scherzo in the second movement of the Violin Concerto and the ironic scherzo of the 'Grotesque' had supplemented and questioned the confession of the first movement; but in the String Quartet No. 1 the slow movement now mourns for this same love." (Kroó 1974, 45)
        Here, I shall discuss only that part of the composition which shows a new variation of the leitmotif representing - similarly to the 13th Bagatelle - the dead internal object. Bónis comments on the composition as follows:
        "The introduction of the Quartet is built of the musical material of the concerto [Violin Concerto]. The graceful main theme of the second movement of the Concerto bearing the instruction, Allegro giocoso, introduces the Lento movement of the 'String Quartet' as if in slow motion, like a lament. 'This is my death song,' Stefi Geyer recalled Bartók to have written her about this 'String Quartet' movement..." (Bónis 1992, 42-43)9:

Figure 8

This completes the musical representation of the intrapsychic dynamics that characterized the course of Bartók's relationship with Stefi Geyer.
        It exceeds the limits of the present paper to trace how Bartók found his way back to life from the "realm of emotional death" in the String Quartet No. I, symbolized by the clear, ancient pentatonic melody of the "Székely dirge" (Bónis 1992).
        I trust, however, that in the foregoing I have accomplished my objective to illustrate the phenomenon of musical object representation.
        In conclusion, allow me to make a few theoretical observations.
        Winnicott relegates human cultural achievements to a potential space arising from primary object relationship (Winnicott 1971). It follows logically that art - which bridges the distance between self and object in a symbolic, simultaneously external and internal (mental), space - must, by necessity, represent object relations. My paper endeavored to prove this thesis with the added observation that in music (art) representation of internal objects and the affects related to them, that is, internal object relations, means an arrangement into cognitive structures. Therefore, music (art) may be considered as a model of personality, the study of which assumes a combined employ and integration of psychoanalytical and cognitive psychological approaches.

E-mail to Csaba Horgasz


1Sacher and Geyer were close friends. Before she died, Geyer gave him the letters (together with the manuscript of the "First Violin Concerto" Bartók wrote for her).
2Data in the literature give the precise dates of the beginning and the end of the close relationship between Bartók and Geyer: it lasted from June 28, 1907 to February 13, 1908 (Bónis, 1992; Tallián, 1981). During this period, Bartók made the following collection trips: a brief trip to Transylvania starting on July 1, 1907; he spent two months in Csík from July 6 and one week in Nyitra after November 1 (Bartók, Jr., 1981b).
3"Aunt Irma (Irma Voit), Bartók's mother's sister who was older by eight years... took care of their home after Bartók's father died and she lived with her sister thereafter. Ever since she was a little girl, Bartók's mother clung to Irma so much so that she often called her 'Stecknadel,' meaning that she followed Irma around as if she were pinned to her skirt. This intense mutual attachment made Mother and Aunt Irma seem virtually as one person in the eyes of the family - one could not imagine one without the other." (Márta Ziegler, Mrs Károly Ziegler, in: Bónis, 1995, 46).
4"I do not see why you should condemn suicide as such a cowardly act! It's quite the contrary... As long as my mother is alive, and as long as I have some interest in the world, I will not commit suicide. But beyond that? Once I have no responsibility towards any living person, once I live all by myself (never 'wavering' even then) - why should suicide be a cowardly act? It's true, of course, that it would not be a deed of great daring, but it could not be dismissed as an act of cowardly indifference---" (September 11, 1907, cf. Bartók, 1971, 86.)
5"We may lay it down that a happy person never phantasies, only an unsatisfied one. The motive forces of phantasies are unsatisfied wishes, and every single phantasy is the fulfillment of a wish, a correction of unsatisfying reality." (Freud, S. 1908 [1907]. Creative writers and day-dreaming. S.E. 9:146.)
6On February 5, 1908.
7The separation of the good and the bad aspects, their representation in two distinct movements preserves the dichotomy; it's as if we were witnessing sublimation of the splitting.
8The question arises, what exactly does "internal object" mean in terms of clinical practice. Are we dealing with a conceptual, pictorial, or some other representation of an entity. And, in view of the fact - known from cognitive psychology - that mental operation is tied to cognitive schemas, we may ask if representation of internal objects in the cognitive structure is inevitable in each and every case.
9"Kodály said that the String Quartet No. I. was "inner drama, a sort of 'retour ù la vie', the return to life a man who had reached the shores of nothingness." The opening of this funeral hymn, a descending F minor seventh chord, is the inversion of Stefi Geyer's leitmotif, a Freudian symbol, a torch turned downward." (Tallián, 1988, 68)


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Bartók, Béla, Jr., 1981a, Bartók Béla családi levelei (Béla Bartók's Family Correspondence), Budapest, Zenemûkiadó.
Bartók, Béla, Jr., 1981b, Apám életének krónikája (Chronicle of My Father's Life), Budapest, Zenemûkiadó.
Bónis, Ferenc, 1992, Elsô hegedûverseny, elsô vonósnégyes: Bartók zeneszerzôi pályájának fordulópontja (First Violin Concerto, First String Quartet: The Turning Point in Bartók's Career as a Composer), In: Hódolat Bartóknak és Kodálynak (Homage to Bartók and Kodály), Budapest, Püski Kiadó Ltd.
Böhm, László, 1990, Zenei Mûszótár (Dictionary of Music), Budapest, Editio Musica.
Horgász, Csaba, 1993, Pilinszky Simon Áron címû novellájának pszichoanalitikus megközelítése. Kísérlet a tárgykapcsolati szemlélet mûértelmezésben való alkalmazására (Psychoanalytical approach to János Pilinszky's novel, Áron Simon. An attempt to apply the object relation concept in the interpretation of works of art), Thalassa (4), 1, 92-106.
Horgász, Csaba, 1995, Bartók Béla személyiségérôl és mûvészi világképérôl (On Béla Bartók's personality and artistic view of the world), Thalassa (6), 1-2, 36-59.
Kroó, György, 1974, Guide to Bartók (Transl. by Ruth Pataki and Mária Steiner), Budapest, Corvina Press.
Lendvai, Ernõ, 1971, A dualitás elve. Két portré (The principle of duality. Two Portraits), In: Bartók költõi világa (Bartók's Poetic World), Budapest, Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 59-75. [English: Lendvai, Ernõ, 1971, Bartók's Poetic World, Publishing House of Belles-lettres.]
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